Canyons are formed from the constant erosion of mountains, cliffs or escarpments, and peaks from the action and course of wind and water, usually rivers. Rivers have a natural tendency to cut through underlying surfaces, and will eventually wear away rock layers to lessen their own pitch. Given enough time, their bottoms will gradually reach a baseline elevation — which is the same elevation as the body of water it will eventually drain into. This action, when the river source and mouth are at much different base elevations, will form a canyon.
The world has many canyons that have been formed from the action of meandering rivers. The view of naturally sculpted rocks is absolutely mesmerising.
1. Fjaðrárgljúfur Canyon, Iceland
Pronounced as “Flea-ya-du-ragh-glee-yo-miyur” (I think…Icelandic is very difficult) is a canyon in south east Iceland which is up to 100 m deep and about 2 kilometres long, with the Fjaðrá (Flea-ya-du-ragh) river flowing through it. It is located near the village of Kirkjubæjarklaustur (Kir-kyu-bae-yar-klos-tur).
The canyon was created by progressive erosion by flowing water from glaciers through the rocks and palagonite.